What Is Glomerulonephritis?
Glomerulonephritis occurs when the glomeruli (tiny filters present in the kidney) are damaged.
Glomeruli help eliminate excess fluid, wastes, and electrolytes from the blood into the urine. One can develop Glomerulonephritis gradually or suddenly. It is also called glomerular disease. In this condition, kidneys struggle to function normally, unable to filter the waste and retain fluids.
Glomerulonephritis is caused due to excess loss of protein, RBCs, and WBCs from the blood into the urine. Glomerulonephritis causes chronic kidney disease(CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the patient may have to undergo renal replacement therapy like dialysis.
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Causes of Glomerulonephritis
There are many conditions causing Glomerulonephritis. Sometimes, the diseases may be hereditary and have many unknown causes. Acute Glomerulonephritis may occur in patients with strep throat, chickenpox, or malaria. The antibodies that are built to dispose of the body’s infection will harm glomeruli.
Sometimes, chronic Glomerulonephritis may be caused due to a genetic disorder or an autoimmune disease like lupus through which the body’s immune system is affected in the body.
Here is the list of conditions leading to inflammation of kidneys’ glomeruli:
- Focal segmental Glomerulonephritis: In this condition, scar tissues are formed in glomeruli interrupting the normal functioning of kidneys.
- Diabetes Mellitus
- Goodpasture’s Syndrome: A disorder relating to autoimmunity disease in which kidneys and lungs are damaged.
- IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): A condition caused due to inflammation of the glomeruli causing discharge of blood in the urine.
- Membranoproliferative GN I (MPGN I): A disorder caused by inflammation and where the kidney’s cells get restructured.
- Membranoproliferative GN II(MPGN II or dense deposit): A kidney disease where the waste deposits pile up in the kidneys and scar them preventing the kidney to function normally.
- Post-streptococcal GN: A condition occurs when an individual is infected with certain types of streptococcus bacteria, that cause strep throat or skin infections.
Signs that you have Glomerulonephritis:
A patient will experience mild symptoms which you may tend to ignore for a while. If the disease persists, kidneys fail to function, and the following symptoms may grow worse.
- puffed feet and legs
- swollen face and eyes
- Less urination
- foamy urine or blood in the urine
- feel queasy
- food aversion
- Lower Abdomen pain
- visual disturbance
Diagnosis of Glomerulonephritis
You can detect Glomerulonephritis through many ways:
- Commonly through routine health screening
- Lab tests specific to symptoms
- Urine and blood test
- X-rays of kidneys
- Kidney biopsy
Mild Glomerulonephritis may not need any medications however the doctor will monitor your health conditions and it might diminish by itself.
Acute Glomerulonephritis caused due to infections will be treated with a controlled diet and medications like antibiotics to treat the infection, normalize blood pressure, and immunosuppressant drugs.
In the case of chronic Glomerulonephritis, immunosuppressant oral drugs or intravenous means. Medicines help remove antibodies from the body that may be harming the kidneys. hypertension medicines are prescribed medicines to reduce Glomerulonephritis. Sometimes, doctors may recommend reducing the intake of sodium, potassium, and protein in the patient’s diet.