Electrolyte Disorders occur in a body when the levels of electrolytes such as calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, and sodium are present in the blood, urine, or bodily fluids are either too low or high. It has to be evenly balanced for your body to function normally. Else, it may lead to serious health issues like coma, kidney failure, or heart attack.
Electrolytes not only keep your body hydrated but are also responsible for the proper functioning of the nerve and muscles, balance pH levels, carry nutrients into cells, and eliminates waste products from cells, and restore damaged tissue.
When you exercise, are dehydrated, or have diarrhea or vomiting, kidney, and some hormone regulate the concentration of all electrolytes.
Habitually electrolyte imbalances are caused when sodium and potassium levels fluctuate in the body. Chronic kidney disease patients are vulnerable to hyperkalemia and hyponatremia.
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Hyperkalemia occurs when there is excess potassium in blood or urine. Potassium regulates the normal heart electrical rhythm. Potassium levels at 3.5 to 5.0, milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L) are considered normal range. Above 6 mEq/L indicates severe Hyperkalemia that causes abnormal heart rhythms and heart attack also.
It is a condition where the sodium level is low in the body. 135-145 mEq/L range is a normal sodium level that has been present in the blood. If the sodium levels fall below 135 mEq/L in the blood due to kidney disease, dehydration, diarrhea, or vomiting, it causes Hyponatremia.
Certain medicines cause electrolyte fluctuations. Medicines like diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or ARBs that are used to treat high blood pressures may cause hyperkalemia. Hyponatremia may be caused by the consumption of medicines like diuretics, antidepressants, and pain killers.
Patients with chronic kidney disease should closely monitor their electrolyte levels. Our physicians will observe the blood test and urine analysis report to know the level of the electrolytes in the blood and measure the pH balance that tells about kidney functioning. If they observe electrolyte imbalance, they treat it in various ways like oral rehydration therapy, IV electrolyte replacement therapy, or through diet and work on preventions.
Sometimes, kidney failure causes Electrolyte Disorders. We at Nephrologists will monitor the electrolyte levels and treat any imbalance as part of overall health care.